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  • In 2020, the installed capacity of WPPs and SPPs increased by 41% and their share in the generation mix doubled

    In 2020, the share of WPPs and SPPs doubled in the generation mix — up to 6.8% (3.3% in 2019) with a total electricity production of 148.9 billion kWh. The installed capacity of these RES during the year increased by 1.9 GW (+ 41% compared to 2019).

    The installed capacity of SPPs has increased most significantly. The peak production of SPPs in the spring-summer period is on the hours of daily consumption reduction (from 12:00 to 17:00). This requires flexible tools for their balancing. The RES balancing, mainly SPPs, during the daytime hours was last year and remains today the main problem of RES integration into the power system of Ukraine.

    Dynamics of installed capacity and share in the total production of WPPs and SPPs

     

     

    Installed capacity, МW (%)

    Volumes and share in total production, bln kWh (%)

     

    2019

    2020

    2019

    2020

    SPP

    3,555.4

    5,362.6

    +1,807.2 (+50.8%)

    3.1

    6.8

    +3.7

    (4.6%)

    WPP

    1,025.0

    1,111.2

    +86.2 (+8.4%)

    2.0

    3.3

    +1.3

    (2.2%)

    Total

    4580.4

    6473.8

    +1,893.4 (+41%)

    5.1

    10.1

    +5

    (6.8%)

     

    In 2020, the transmission system operator (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSOs) issued a total of technical conditions for connection to the networks of the IPS of Ukraine of the new RES generation with an installed capacity of 1,374.95 MW, of which 1,035.7 MW – to the networks of the TSO, where SPPs account for 78%. That means that RES capacity will continue growing and, accordingly, the RES share will be increasing in the generation mix.

     

    Technical conditions issued for SPP and WPP connection in 2020, МW

     

     

    Total

    To the networks of the TSO

    To the networks of the DSOs

    SPP

    1,030.45 (75%)

    810 (78%)

    220.45 (65%)

    WPP

    145.20 (11%)

    77.9 (8%)

    67.3 (20%)

    Other

    199.3 (14%)

    147.8 (14%)

    51.5 (15%)

    Total

    1,374.95

    1,035.7

    339.25

     

    The installed capacity of thermal and hydro generation remains practically unchanged, which today plays the key role in covering peak and semi-peak loads. In such conditions, a critical factor is to provide thermal generation with the required volumes of coal.

     

    Type of generation/GW

    2017

    2018

    2019

    2020

    TPP GC

    24.6

    21.8

    21.8

    21.8

    CHPP

    6.0

    6.1

    6.1

    6.1

    HPP

    4.7

    4.8

    4.8

    4.8

    PSPP

    1.5

    1.5

    1.5

    1.5

     

    Thermal and hydro generation are the key regulation tools that provide the possibility of integrating RES into the power system and allow compensating for the sharply changing (stochastic) mode of its operation, providing the power system with maneuvering capacity.

    The combination of these factors against the general decrease in electricity consumption (in particular related to the introduction of quarantine measures) has led to a significant increase in the number of cases of SPP and WPP generation curtailment under the dispatcher’s command.

     

    POWER SYSTEM REGULATION AND RES CURTAILMENTS

     

    The increase of the installed capacity of RES (primarily SPPs), given their sharply changing (stochastic) nature of operation, significantly complicates the operation of the power system against the seasonal decrease in the consumption in the warm time of the year.

    Thus, in 2020, electricity consumption decreased by 2.7% (compared to 2019). In spring (March-May), when the volume of RES production increases seasonally (mainly due to SPPs), strict quarantine measures were in force, as a result of which the reduction in consumption in certain periods reached 7%. The daily schedule of electricity consumption changed in a similar way:

    • the difference between the minimum and maximum value of daily power consumption increased by an average of 300 MW, and in some months – by almost 600 MW;
    • the level of electricity consumption during daytime hours decreased most significantly (for example, in May at 12:00 (in the hour of SPP maximum load) the weekday average consumption decreased by 1.1 GW (from 16.1 to 15 GW).

    The peak of SPP generation due to high solar activity occurs during the daytime, when there is a decrease in consumption in the power system, compared to the morning and evening peaks. At the same time, the electricity from renewable energy sources is supplied to the grid in the specified period even in excess of the volumes purchased in market segments by market participants for the needs of end consumers. As a result, there appears to be a surplus of production in the power system. In order to maintain the balance in the power system and ensure operational safety during this period of the day, the dispatchers of NPC Ukrenergo have to:

    • apply all available TPP and HPP offers for unloading within the balancing market and give similar operational safety commands;
    • give operational safety commands to the operation of PSPP in the pump mode to increase consumption.

    If these measures are not enough, RES limitations are applied, which depend, in particular, on the instantaneous level of consumption and total RES capacity. The maximum RES load in 2020 was recorded in the trading area of the IPS of Ukraine at 12:00 on August 30 – 3.92 GW, of which SPPs – 3.47 GW.

    In 2020, the installed capacity of RES increased 1.4 times, and production – doubled. Due to a decrease in consumption, this led to 6.5 increase in the number of RES curtailments (20 cases in 2020 against three in 2019). The maximum total value of curtailment was 2,178.86 MW (7 June 2020).

     

    RES curtailments in the power system of Ukraine

    Date

    Total value of limitations, МW

    Type of generation

    1

    07.01

    929.5

    WPP, SPP

    2

    10.03

    510

    WPP

    3

    14.03

    282.5

    WPP

    4

    15.03

    400

    WPP, SPP

    5

    26.03

    407

    WPP, SPP

    6

    28.03

    409

    WPP, SPP

    7

    02.04

    390.4

    WPP, SPP

    8

    03.04

    597.6

    WPP, SPP

    9

    04.04

    1,363.4

    WPP, SPP

    10

    05.04

    1,656.7

    WPP, SPP

    11

    09.04

    400

    SPP

    12

    11.04

    958.46

    WPP, SPP

    13

    12.04

    644.27

    SPP

    14

    19.04

    380

    SPP

    15

    10.05

    910

    WPP, SPP

    16

    07.06

    2,178.86

    WPP, SPP

    17

    13.08

    350

    SPP, WPP

    18

    28.08

    300

    SPP, WPP

    19

    09.09

    498.1

    SPP, WPP

    20

    04.10

    1113.16

    SPP, WPP

     

    This situation is typical for the period from spring to mid-autumn and is increasingly complicated by the growth of new RES capacity. The first RES curtailment in 2021 occurred on 11 March  at 12:30, when the RES load reached 4.46 GW. Given the surplus of capacity and depleted reserves for unloading to ensure the limits of operational safety of the power system, this led to the need to unload a total of 400 MW of SPP and WPP. The RES curtailments in 2021 took place also on 28 March, and 1, 3, 10, and 11 April (the last two days for a total of about 1.5 GW each).

    In order to organize the commands to reduce RES load, Ukrenergo has developed and implemented since June 2020 a system for managing RES curtailments. In 2020, load reduction commands were given in accordance with the principle of non-discrimination, i.e. in proportion to all RES producers operating at a feed-in tariff. In 2021 (according to p. 3.1, p. 3.2 of the Procedure of rendering load reduction service for execution of p. 3 of the NEURC Resolution No. 2818 dated 30.12.2020) commands on reduction of RES load are given through RES curtailment management system according to the ranking principle. To do this, a RES producer is obliged to join the public contract for load reduction (to become a provider of services for the RES load reduction with support), to connect to RES curtailment management system and submit offers (applications) for the provision of load reduction services. To balance the power system and in the event of insufficient activation of load reduction requests from balancing service suppliers and RES load reduction requests in RES curtailment management system, other RES producers that have not acquired the status of a provider of services for the RES load reduction with support are given operational safety commands on a proportional basis. According to the changes in the Market Rules approved by the NEURC Resolution No. 2818 dated 30.12.2020, from 1 January 2021, the compensation for electricity not generated as a result of RES dispatch limitations can be paid only to those producers who are providers of services for the RES load reduction with support, connected to RES curtailment management system and provide load reduction services through RES curtailment management system by registration of the corresponding applications.

    As of 6 April 2021, 111 RES facilities with an installed capacity of 2,393 MW (36% of the total installed RES capacity) were connected to the RES curtailment management system. For more information on the procedure for joining the System, concluding contracts, etc., see the website of NPC Ukrenergo (in Ukrainian).

     

    SALE OF ELECTRICITY PRODUCED FROM RES

     

    Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated 28.09.2020 No. 887 amended the procedure for conducting electronic auctions for the sale of electricity under bilateral contracts. This improved the situation and enabled SE Guaranteed Buyer to sell electricity at auctions under bilateral contracts, which it could previously sell only in the day-ahead market (DAM) and the intra-day market (IDM), and unsold volumes headed to the balancing market. Currently, SE Guaranteed Buyer sells these volumes through auctions, where there is a positive trend of sales (from 13% in October 2020 to 39% in January 2021), which reduces imbalances.

     

    CRITICALLY NECESSARY MEASURES TO INCREASE THE FLEXIBILITY OF THE POWER SYSTEM AND THE POSSIBILITY FOR FURTHER EFFECTIVE RES INTEGRATION

     

    High maneuvering capacity and sufficient power reserves for primary frequency control, which can be energy storage systems, will allow to increase the flexibility of the power system with the intensive growth of RES share in the generation structure, to avoid the need to limit electricity production of WPPs and SPPs, and ensure the safety and reliability of the power system.

    According to the draft report on assessment of adequacy  of generating capacities for 2022-2031, which is currently being considered by NEURC, it is necessary to increase the flexibility of the power system in 2021-2022 through:

    – construction of at least 2 GW of highly maneuverable generation;

    – 500 MW of energy storage, and in the absence of reserves for primary control until 2022 – additional 200 MW of energy storage.

    – legal commitment of investors during the construction of new RES to install energy storage or other types of compensating capacity in the volume of 20% of the RES installed capacity.

    Also in the short term it is necessary to start the reconstruction of TPP units or new construction of 1.2-1.5 GW of semi-peak capacity.

    Ukrenergo has formed and provided the Ministry of Energy with technical requirements for the tender for the construction of the first 500 MW of highly maneuvering capacity and determined the volumes and places of their connection in the Network Development Plan. Proposals were also submitted to the working group of the Ministry of Energy on changes in legislation to regulate the legal and organizational framework for the operation of energy storage with corresponding technical requirements. Also, when issuing technical conditions for the connection of new RES, especially in unbalanced power nodes, NPC Ukrenergo recommends together with the construction of a power plant with RES to build compensating capacities – energy storages or other types of highly maneuverable generation. This requirement must be enshrined in law.

    Ukrenergo fully supports and makes every effort to achieve Ukraine’s strategic goals in terms of decarbonization of the economy and energy sector, ensuring the integration of RES into the power system at the level of 25% by 2030 in accordance with the energy strategy. At the same time, as the transmission system operator, Ukrenergo determines the reliable and safe operation of the power system and power supply to consumers as a key indicator of the efficiency of RES implementation. Therefore, it is extremely important to accelerate the implementation of the above measures, which will ensure the effective integration of RES into the power system, its reliable and safe operation, as well as implement the country’s strategic goals of decarbonisation and contribute to global response to climate change.

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